are software algorithms that are used to predict or detect
unknown aspects of the learning process, based on historical data
and current behavior. There are four main categories of learning
descriptive (what happened?)
predictive (what will happen next?)
diagnostic (why did it happen?)
prescriptive (do this to improve)
Models can contain indicators (a.k.a. predictors), targets (the outcome we are trying to predict), insights (the predictions themselves), notifications (messages sent as a result of insights), and actions (offered to recipients of messages, which can become indicators in turn).